Engineering is a global industry undergoing a period of unprecedented change. The future of engineering is being framed by global forces that transcend national boundaries such as the impacts of globalization, rapid technology advances, climate change, and inequality. Through the application of science and engineering, humanity has the potential to meet all of its basic needs. Technological and scientific advances especially at the interface of advanced computing, biology, and physics are leading exponential growth of innovation and opening a world of new possibilities and markets. It follows that the engineering curriculum for higher education needs to constantly strive to keep pace with these advances and in particular the contribution of engineering to these global opportunities and challenges.
Higher education needs to prepare engineers of the future with the skills and technicality which they will need to cope up with the rapid changes, uncertainties, and complexities. The key here is the ability to mold engineering solutions to the local social, economic, political, cultural, and environmental context and to understand the impact of the action on the wider world. Although there is a global dimension within all subject areas, engineering and technology have unique importance in addressing global challenges, delivering environmental sustainability, and economic growth. India also has the potential to be a global technology leader. Indian industry is competing globally in software and even in areas such, automobiles, chemicals, and engineering equipment. A critical issue for the success of Indian education in the field of engineering requires a revolution.
Since 1991 India has been revolutionizing itself, right from globalization getting into the dynamics of the country to technology diversification being the key. Indian education especially engineering has always been the essence of the science curriculum. All Higher Education Institutions (HEI) engaged in engineering education need to undertake a review of existing courses and existing curriculum in order to consider the extent to which the global dimension is adequately reflected. India wants to pace up with other countries all across and wants to become a global education hub. This is one of the reasons for the inception of the new education policy 2020. Higher Education Academy through its engineering subject center to promote professional development around the concept of the ‘global engineer’ incorporating links in order to promote sustainable development and internationalization. Engineering education research represents a unique component of education & research. Research in engineering
education emphasizes not only on research and discovery but also, reform and implementation. Globally, engineering education research is on the agenda for the improvement of higher engineering education and the development of strategies for solving important issues for the future of engineering education, such as recruitment, the need for new competencies, and the ability to deal with new types of interdisciplinary and complex knowledge. Engineering education research should be characterized by a unique interdisciplinary approach where engineering education researchers do have various backgrounds in engineering, science, social science, and educational psychology investigating higher engineering education. Research in engineering education is highly interdisciplinary and lies at the intersection of engineering, education, and the learning sciences. Engineering education research must draw upon innovations and advances in the fields of education and learning sciences to strengthen the research.
The educational system goes through various developments and changes. Thus selection and organization of curriculum content, curriculum implementation and evaluation, the development, distribution, and use of teaching materials, and the relevance of the curriculum is what is needed today. A curriculum considers the learners and their interaction with each other, the teacher, and the materials.
Curriculum overall can be viewed as a composite whole, including the learner, the teacher, teaching and learning methodologies, anticipated and unanticipated experiences, outputs, and outcomes possible within a learning institution. The basic premise is that teachers’ professional development is most effective through their active involvement in curriculum design communities. Here teachers are not passively receiving evidence from research and are asked to simply carry out teaching tasks, but they actively apply both research and practical evidence in codesigning curricular products and learning scenarios for their own classrooms. The three components of the curriculum can be represented by a triangle of which the design approach consisting of teacher development, and participation, and collaboration in communities. The main intention of revamping the entire curriculum is to introduce matter that is relevant or students’ growth and development, to understand the detailed subject with a 360-degree knowledge of the subject both in practical as well as a theoretical base.
Universities are exploring ways to revise the engineering curriculum in order to meet the changing needs of industry and society. Any restructuring of an engineering curriculum must take into account the correlation between society, engineering competencies, and the changing paradigm of engineering education. The innovation of the curriculum with regards to gender mainstreaming means broadly oriented integrated and content-rich teaching material, diversity in teaching, and learning methods. As an academic discipline, engineering is continuously undergoing a process of rapid expansion and diversification that is now significantly characterized by interdisciplinary approaches. There is a rise of interest in increasing interdisciplinary studies. As a profession, engineering has to deal with scientific and technological matters, but increasingly economic, political, ethical, societal, and environmental aspects are taken into account as well. Society places many demands on an engineer; to be technicians with a human side, be adept in interdisciplinary skills that include both technical and non-technical
competencies that enable them to critically analyze, solve problems, communicate effectively, and be able to learn continuously as the workplace changes.
Introducing social science and other disciplines into engineering could, ideally, help bridge the rift that exists between producers and consumers of technology. Social sciences, humanities, cultural, and management studies are also as important as the traditional applied sciences for the portfolio of engineering competencies because students need to understand the financial, business, environmental, economic, and social constraints in which engineers operate. Surveys and reports were undertaken to
document and evaluate active teaching and learning methods indicate that project and problem-based learning can satisfy the demands for required knowledge, skills, and attitudes of engineering graduates. But active and experiential learning is not limited only to project orientation and problem-based learning.